What is TLR3 gene?

What is TLR3 gene?

TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

What does TLR3 recognize?

TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA in endosomes, which is a common feature of viral genomes internalised by macrophages and dendritic cells.

Where is TLR3 found?

TLR3 is expressed in various tissues and cells. In the human central nervous system, TLR3 is expressed constitutively in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, suggesting a role in the response to viruses causing encephalopathy. In immune cells, only myeloid DCs and macrophages express TLR3.

What does TLR3 bind to?

Analysis of the crystal structure of a complex comprising TLR3 and dsRNA revealed that TLR3 binds to dsRNA molecules at two sites located at opposite ends of the TLR3 horseshoe [20,21]. Furthermore, data also suggest that TLR3 primarily senses unmethylated RNA molecules [22].

What is a TLR3 in teaching?

Governing bodies may award fixed-term TLR3 payments for “clearly time-limited school improvement projects, or one-off externally driven responsibilities”. The duration of the payment must be established at the outset and payment must be made on a monthly basis for the duration of the fixed-term.

What is TLR3 in teaching?

What is the ligand of TLR3?

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a PAMP associated with viral infections. The ligand of choice for TLR3 is a synthetic analog of dsRNA known as polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C) or poly(rI):poly(rC)).

How is TLR3 activated?

The NF-κB branch of TLR3 is activated by TRIF-dependent recruitment of RIP1, TAK1, and IKK. Activation of these transcription factors leads to their nuclear translocation, where they bind to their respective promoter elements of the target genes.

Can you have more than 1 TLR?

Are TLRs permanent or temporary? Teachers may not hold more than one TLR1 or TLR2 payments but a single TLR payment can be based on a job description that itemises several different areas of significant responsibility. A teacher can now hold one or more TLR3 payments in addition to a TLR1 or TLR2 payment.

How much is the SEN allowance?

Special Educational Needs Allowances

1 Sept 2020 to 31 Aug 2021 1 Sept 2021 to 31 Aug 2022
SEN (Min) SEN (Max) £2,270 £4,479 £2,270 £4,479

What does TLR3 stand for?

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 ( cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR3 gene. TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system .

What does TLR3 do in atherosclerosis?

Function. TLR3 displays a protective role in mouse models of atherosclerosis, and activation of TLR3 signaling is associated with ischemic preconditioning-induced protection against brain ischemia and attenuation of reactive astrogliosis. Furthermore, TLR3 activation has been shown to promote hair follicle regeneration in skin wound healing.

How does TLR3 activate IRF3?

Upon recognition, TLR 3 induces the activation of IRF3 to increase production of type I interferons which signal other cells to increase their antiviral defenses. Double-stranded RNA is also recognised by the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I and MDA-5.

What causes Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation?

Injury to the skin, and the subsequent release of non-coding double-stranded RNA from necrotic keratinocytes, has been identified as an endogenous activator of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3).