What is compensated metabolic alkalosis?

What is compensated metabolic alkalosis?

As a compensatory mechanism, metabolic alkalosis leads to alveolar hypoventilation with a rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), which diminishes the change in pH that would otherwise occur.

What causes compensated metabolic alkalosis?

Metabolic alkalosis is primary increase in bicarbonate (HCO 3 −) with or without compensatory increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco 2); pH may be high or nearly normal. Common causes include prolonged vomiting, hypovolemia, diuretic use, and hypokalemia.

How do kidneys respond to metabolic alkalosis?

The kidneys excrete excess HCO3 − into urine during a metabolic alkalosis. Hypokalemia and kaliuresis are common complications of metabolic alkalosis. Patients with metabolic alkalosis are predisposed to cardiac arrhythmias.

How do you fix compensated metabolic alkalosis?

Metabolic alkalosis treatment uses an intravenous (IV) line to deliver fluid and other substances, such as:

  1. Saline infusion.
  2. Potassium replacement.
  3. Magnesium replacement.
  4. Chloride infusion.
  5. Hydrochloric acid infusion.
  6. Stopping the medications that caused the condition, for example high doses of diuretics.

What is metabolic compensation?

Metabolic compensation (alkalosis): The body compensates for the decreased pH from the primary respiratory acidosis by increasing renal excretion of H+.

What does compensated and uncompensated mean?

When PaCO2 and HCO3 values are high but pH is acidic, then it indicates partial compensation. It means that the compensatory mechanism tried but failed to bring the pH to normal. If pH is abnormal and if the value of either PaCO2 or HCO3 is abnormal, it indicates that the system is uncompensated.

How is compensated metabolic acidosis determined?

A simple rule for deciding whether the fall in Pco2 is appropriate for the degree of metabolic acidosis is that the Pco2 should be equal to the last two digits of the pH. For example, compensation is adequate if the Pco2 decreases to 28 when the pH is 7.28.

What is metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?

Acidosis is when your blood pH drops below 7.35 and becomes too acidic. Alkalosis is when your blood pH is higher than 7.45 and becomes too alkaline. The two main organs that help balance the pH of blood are the: Lungs. These organs remove carbon dioxide through breathing or respiration.

How do Lungs compensate for metabolic alkalosis?

Your body compensates for both alkalosis and acidosis mainly through your lungs. The lungs change the alkalinity of your blood by allowing more or less carbon dioxide to escape as you breathe.

How is compensated respiratory acidosis treated?


  1. Bronchodilator medicines and corticosteroids to reverse some types of airway obstruction.
  2. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (sometimes called CPAP or BiPAP) or a breathing machine, if needed.
  3. Oxygen if the blood oxygen level is low.
  4. Treatment to stop smoking.

How does dehydration cause metabolic acidosis?

Decreased renal perfusion also causes decreased glomerular filtration rate, which, in turn, leads to decreased hydrogen (H+) ion excretion. These factors can combine to produce a metabolic acidosis.

When is metabolic acidosis compensated?

Compensation for a metabolic acidosis is hyperventilation to decrease the arterial pCO2. This hyperventilation was first described by Kussmaul in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in 1874. The metabolic acidosis is detected by both the peripheral and central chemoreceptors and the respiratory center is stimulated.

What does fully compensated metabolic alkalosis mean?

Fully Compensated Metabolic Alkalosis. Fully Compensated Metabolic Alkalosis usually comes on more gradually after Uncompensated Metabolic Alkalosis has occurred. The slower pace of this acid-base imbalance allows time for the lungs to retain enough CO2 and H+, which counterbalances the increased HCO3-.

What does alkalosis mean in medical terms?

com·pen·sat·ed al·ka·lo·sis. (kom’pĕn-sāt-ĕd al’kă-lō’sis) Disorder in which there is a change in bicarbonate but the pH of body fluids approaches normal; respiratory alkalosis may be compensated by increased production of metabolic acids or increased renal excretion of bicarbonate; metabolic alkalosis is rarely compensated by hypoventilation.

What is metmetabolic alkalosis?

Metabolic alkalosis is a very common primary acid–base disturbance associated with increased plasma HCO3.

What is the role of metabolic alkalosis in hypoventilation?

The metabolic alkalosis allows them to have a fairly normal pH, despite hypoventilation. Without metabolic compensation, these patients would be acidemic and have an increased respiratory drive.

Compensated Metabolic Alkalosis. The lungs retain carbon dioxide (CO2) through hypoventilation (respiratory compensation) or slower rate of respiration. This is followed by consumption of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), thus reducing the pH level in the bloodstream. Though respiratory compensation occurs, it is incomplete.

What is the difference between acidosis and metabolic alkalosis?

A decrease in pH below this range is acidosis, an increase over this range is alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis is defined as a disease state where the body’s pH is elevated to greater than 7.45 secondary to some metabolic process.

What is respiratory alkalosis?

Respiratory alkalosis is by definition a disease state where the body’s pH is elevated to greater than 7.45 secondary to some respiratory or pulmonary process.[1] NCBI Skip to main content Skip to navigation Resources How To About NCBI Accesskeys My NCBISign in to NCBISign Out Bookshelf

What does partially compensated metabolic acidosis mean?

Partially Compensated Metabolic Acidosis Partially Compensated Metabolic Acidosis is more of an “in-between” stage for when a patient is moving from Uncompensated into Fully Compensated. As the kidneys are less able to excrete HCO 3 -, the blood pH gradually increases and becomes more alkaline.