What is chromosomal aberration and its types?

What is chromosomal aberration and its types?

The four main types of structural chromosomal aberrations are deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation. Deletions occur when a portion of the chromosome is deleted, or taken out, which can make that chromosome less functional.

What is a translocation in genetics?

Listen to pronunciation. (TRANZ-loh-KAY-shun) A genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. Sometimes pieces from two different chromosomes will trade places with each other.

What is intra chromosomal mutation?

Intrachromosomal translocations involve the movement of a chromosomal segment from one location in the chromosome to another. This is normally non-reciprocal, that is another segment does not exchange places with the first segment.

What are the different chromosomal aberrations Class 12?

Ans. The seven types of abnormalities of chromosomes include – translocations, insertions, deletions, rings, mosaicism, mixoploidy and Aneuploidy.

What are the 4 types of chromosomal mutations?

As mentioned above, the four types of Chromosomal Mutations I are inversion, deletion, duplication/amplification, and translocation. All four of these can be seen in Figure 3 above. These mutations alter the structure of the chromosome since they tend to break and these pieces often form sticky ends.

What is structural chromosomal aberration?

Structural Chromosome Aberrations. In essence, structural chromosome aberrations are the result of chromosome breakage and abnormal reunion of broken chromosomes. They can be produced experimentally by exposing active cells to mutagens, such as ionizing radiation.

What is the function of translocation?

Translocation is the process within plants that functions to deliver nutrients and other molecules over long distances throughout the organism.

What causes translocation?

Translocations generally result from swapping of chromosomal arms between heterologous chromosomes and hence are reciprocal in nature (Figure 1) (8,9). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are prerequisites for such translocations, although little is known about their generation.

What is Interchromosomal recombination?

Interchromosomal recombination is a type of genetic recombination where the sequences of nucleotides are exchanged between two identical molecules of DNA of identical or homologous chromosomes. It is resulted due to crossing over between two linked gene pairs of two non-homologous chromosomes.

What is Intrachromosomal and Interchromosomal translocation reciprocal and non reciprocal translocation?

Translocations can occur within a chromosome (intrachromosomal) or between chromosomes (interchromosomal). In an intrachromosomal translocation, a segment breaks off the chromosome and rejoins it at a different location. Nonreciprocal translocations occur when the transfer of chromosomal material is one way.

What are chromosomal aberrations Byjus?

Chromosomal abnormalities are the type of genetic disorders caused due to the change in one or many chromosomes or the abnormal arrangement of the chromosomes.

What are 5 types of mutations?


  • Germline mutations occur in gametes. Somatic mutations occur in other body cells.
  • Chromosomal alterations are mutations that change chromosome structure.
  • Point mutations change a single nucleotide.
  • Frameshift mutations are additions or deletions of nucleotides that cause a shift in the reading frame.

What is meant by the chromosomal aberration?

A chromosomal aberration is an abnormality in the structure or number of chromosomes in an organism. Depending on the nature of the aberration, it can lead to severe birth defects, potentially including defects incompatible with life.

What does chromosome aberration mean?

Image Source: Botany Studies. Chromosomal aberration is a condition in which deletion or duplication of a particular chromosome in a set, lead to monosomy, nullisomy, trisomy, tetrasomy. Some disorders in human being due to chromosomal aberrations are as follows:

What is chromatic aberration is caused by?

Chromatic aberration is caused by lens dispersion, with different colors of light travelling at different speeds while passing through a lens. As a result, the image can look blurred or noticeable colored edges (red, green, blue, yellow, purple, magenta) can appear around objects, especially in high-contrast situations.

What are the three chromosomal abnormalities?

Some of the most common chromosomal abnormalities include: Down’s syndrome or trisomy 21. Edward’s syndrome or trisomy 18. Patau syndrome or trisomy 13. Cri du chat syndrome or 5p minus syndrome (partial deletion of short arm of chromosome 5)