What electrolyte are lost with thiazide diuretics?

What electrolyte are lost with thiazide diuretics?

Thiazide diuretic therapy has been associated with several biochemical electrolyte imbalances including potassium loss. The onset, duration and magnitude of potassium excretion can influence decisions concerning drug therapy, particularly in hypertensive patients at risk if they develop diuretic-induced hypokalemia.

What electrolytes are lost with diuretics?

The initial sodium and water losses induced by diuretic therapy lead to increases in a variety of sodium-retaining factors, such as angiotensin II, aldosterone, and norepinephrine, as well as to a possible reduction in systemic blood pressure [2,7].

How does hydrochlorothiazide affect electrolytes?

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a diuretic (“water pill”) that is commonly used to help lower high blood pressure. HCTZ affects electrolyte balance in the body, which may cause low potassium, low sodium, or low magnesium levels in the blood.

How do diuretics affect electrolytes?

The use of diuretics leads to a negative sodium and fluid balance without primary effects on serum sodium concentration. This parameter is regulated by the activity of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) system. Secondary changes in other electrolyte systems and in acid base homeostasis also are induced by diuretic therapy.

Why do thiazides cause hypokalemia?

Because loop and thiazide diuretics increase sodium delivery to the distal segment of the distal tubule, this increases potassium loss (potentially causing hypokalemia) because the increase in distal tubular sodium concentration stimulates the aldosterone-sensitive sodium pump to increase sodium reabsorption in …

Why do thiazides cause hyperglycemia?

Hypokalemia has been associated with the development of hyperglycemia following the administration of thiazides, possibly through impairment of potassium-dependent insulin release in response to glucose load.

What electrolyte imbalance is the most common side effect of diuretics?

The most common electrolyte imbalance, hyponatremia, having too little sodium, can result from the use of diuretics. Hypernatremia, too much sodium, can also be caused by diuretics.

What do thiazide diuretics do to electrolytes?

Thiazide diuretics work by blocking sodium and chloride (Na/Cl) channels in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron and inhibit the reabsorption of sodium and water. This also causes a loss of potassium and calcium ions.

What are the most common side effects of hydrochlorothiazide?

The more common side effects that can occur with hydrochlorothiazide include:

  • blood pressure that’s lower than normal (especially when standing up after sitting or lying down)
  • dizziness.
  • headache.
  • weakness.
  • erectile dysfunction (trouble getting or keeping an erection)
  • tingling in your hands, legs, and feet.

What are the dangers of taking hydrochlorothiazide?

Check with your doctor right away if you have seizures, decreased urine, drowsiness, dry mouth, excessive thirst, increased heart rate or pulse, muscle pains or cramps, nausea or vomiting, or unusual tiredness or weakness. These may be symptoms of a condition called hypokalemia or potassium loss.

How do thiazide diuretics increase calcium?

By increasing calcium reabsorption from the luminal membrane into the interstitium in exchange for sodium, thiazides reduce urine calcium levels and increase blood calcium. However, if indicated, this effect of thiazide diuretics makes thiazides useful for nephrolithiasis and osteoporosis treatment.

What is a common side effect of thiazide diuretics?

Side effects include increased urination and sodium loss. Diuretics can also affect blood potassium levels. If you take a thiazide diuretic, your potassium level can drop too low (hypokalemia), which can cause life-threatening problems with your heartbeat.

What is the mechanism of action of thiazide diuretics?

Thiazide diuretics. These drugs act by inhibiting NaCl reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. This action is mediated through suppression of the sodium chloride co-transporter.

What are the effects of a diuretic?


  • Headaches
  • Dehydration
  • Muscle cramps
  • Joint disorders (gout)
  • Impotence