What causes Nyong O?
What causes Nyong O?
O’nyong-nyong virus and its variant virus, Igbo-Ora virus, are unusual among arboviruses in that they are transmitted between humans in Africa by infected anopheline mosquitoes, primarily Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae, which also are vectors of malaria.
What is o nyong nyong fever?
O’nyong nyong virus (ONNV) is a mosquito-borne virus endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. It was first isolated during an epidemic that started in Uganda in 1959 and spread regionally, passing through Kenya and Lake Victoria’s shores to southeastern Africa by 1962 .
Are Alphaviruses enveloped?
Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid.
Why HDV is a satellite to HBV?
HDV is also called a satellite of HBV because there is no nucleotide homology between the genomes of HBV and HDV. No other infectious agents of animals resemble HDV. There are agents in plants that share several important characteristics of RNA genome structure and replication.
What are the symptoms of Togavirus?
The infection is often asymptomatic or dismissed as a minor flu-like illness. Symptoms may include: fever, myalgia, arthritis, headache, and an exanthem which appears first on trunk of host and progresses to extremities. Less common symptoms include: jaundice and myocardial damage.
Is Hepatitis E virus enveloped?
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide, is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 to 34 nm in diameter.
What is the pathogenesis of HDV infection?
The pathogenesis of HDV mainly involves interferon-α signaling inhibition, HDV-specific T-lymphocyte activation and cytokine responses, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor kappa B signaling.
How is togavirus transmitted?
Epidemiology: Togaviruses are largely transmitted via mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus, an emerging virus, caused a massive outbreak in some countries in Africa including Kenya and Madagascar in 2004–2006. VEEV, a zoonotic virus, could infect birds, horses, and human. VEEV infection causes rash, fever, and encephalitis.
How is togavirus treated?
Treatment for togavirus infections is generally supportive in order to manage symptoms or complications. An effective measure in preventing rubella is through childhood immunizations using the MMR (Measles, Mumps Rubella) vaccine. There are no human vaccines available for the prevention of the alphavirus diseases.
Which hepatitis has highest mortality?
In combination with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D has the highest fatality rate of all the hepatitis infections, at 20%. A recent estimate from 2020 suggests that currently 48 million persons are infected with this virus.
Does HEV have an envelope?
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide, is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 to 34 nm in diameter. HEV is the sole member of the family Hepeviridae, genus Hepevirus.
How does Hep D work?
Hepatitis D only occurs in people who are also infected with the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis D is spread when blood or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Hepatitis D can be an acute, short-term infection or become a long-term, chronic infection.
What does ONNV stand for?
The o’nyong’nyong virus ( ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, during a large outbreak of a disease in 1959 that resembled dengue fever. ONNV is a togavirus (family Togaviridae), genus Alphavirus, is closely related to the chikungunya…
What is ondonnv virus?
ONNV is a togavirus (family Togaviridae), genus Alphavirus, is closely related to the chikungunya and Igbo Ora viruses, and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 outbreak.
What is the meaning of o’nyongnyong virus?
O’nyong’nyong virus. The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 outbreak. The name comes from the Nilotic language of Uganda and Sudan and means “weakening of the joints”. The virus can infect humans and may cause disease.
What is the mode of transmission of ononnv?
ONNV is transmitted by bites from an infected mosquito. It is the only virus whose primary vectors are anopheline mosquitoes ( Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae) . There have been two epidemics of o’nyong’nyong fever.