How sputtering is different from electron beam evaporation?

How sputtering is different from electron beam evaporation?

E-beam evaporation allows the evaporation of a wider range of metals with higher melting points. Physical sputtering uses ionized gases (Ar) to move material from the target to the substrate. In addition, other compounds such as TiN or TaN can be produced using Ar-N2 mixtures and the metal target.

What are the differences between evaporation and sputtering technique for the production of thin films?

In thermal evaporation, the source material is brought to evaporation temperature either by the heat generated by the resistance of a metal container or by bombardment of a beam of high energy electrons. – Higher energy with sputtering produces higher packing densities and better adhesion if stresses are low.

Why sputtering has better step coverage than evaporation?

Sputtered atoms have higher kinetic energy than evaporated atoms. Sputtering typically occurs at higher pressures which cause greater scattering of the depositing atoms improving step coverage.

What are the disadvantages of e-beam evaporation?

1.) Evaporation: Advantages: Highest purity (Good for Schottky contacts) due to low pressures. Disadvantages: Poor step coverage, forming alloys can be difficult, lower throughput due to low vacuum.

What are the advantages of sputtering?

Like other physical vapor deposition techniques, ion beam sputtering provides advantages such as deposition rate, uniformity, composition, thickness control, adhesion, and material properties.

Is sputtering a PVD?

Sputter deposition is a physical vapour deposition (PVD) method of depositing thin films by sputtering material from a ‘target’, then depositing it onto a ‘substrate’.

What are the advantages of e-beam evaporation over regular thermal evaporation technique?

Overview of E-Beam Evaporation

  • Good for metals and dielectrics with high melting points.
  • Excellent uniformity if you are using planetary and masks (but poor without)
  • Low level of impurity.
  • High deposition rate of <100 Å/s (better than sputtering or resistive thermal evaporation) for high throughput.
  • Good directionality.

Why do we prefer sputtering deposition instead of evaporation if we want to deposit a compound film?

The film quality in sputtering is better than thermal evaporation or e-beam evaporation. Thickness, surface morphology, and work function etc are easily controllable using sputtering process. Moreover, sputtering is also effective for oxides and higher boiling point materials.

How plasma is created in sputtering?

A plasma is created by ionizing a sputtering gas (generally a chemically inert, heavy gas like Argon). The sputtering gas bombards the target and sputters off the material we’d like to deposit. Ions can be generated by the collision of neutral atoms with high energy electrons.

What is the difference between evaporation and sputtering?

While sputtering (particularly ion beam sputtering) produces better film quality and uniformity—which can translate to higher yield— it is also more costly and complex than evaporation.

What is e-beam evaporation?

This produces a very high temperature, which allows metals and dielectrics with high melting temperatures (such as gold and silicon dioxide) to be vaporized, and then deposited on a substrate to form a thin film. E-beam evaporation has a better deposition rate than sputtering or resistive thermal evaporation.

What is ion beam sputtering (IBS)?

Ion beam sputtering (IBS) is a process where an an ion beam is focused on a target and sputters material onto a substrate. The process is monoenergetic and highly collimated as ions possess equal energy and directionality. This thin film deposition process results in the highest quality, densest films.

What is sputtering in PVD?

Essentially, the atoms of the metal are “knocked-off” the base and onto the wafer. Sputtering has become one of the most widely used techniques in PVD nowadays and is now the preferred method over thermal thin film evaporation.