Is toxaphene still used today?
Is toxaphene still used today?
Toxaphene is still used in countries outside the United States but much of this usage has been undocumented. Between 1970 and 1995, global usage of toxaphene was estimated to be 670 million kilograms (1.5 billion pounds).
What is toxaphene used for?
Toxaphene was one of the most heavily used pesticides in the United States in the 1970s and early 1980s. It was used primarily to control insect pests on cotton and other crops in the southern United States. Other uses included controlling insect pests on livestock and killing unwanted fish in lakes.
What elements are in toxaphene?
Toxaphene, which contains 67–69 percent chlorine, is insoluble in water but highly soluble in several organic solvents; under the influence of light, heat, or strong alkalies, it decomposes, forming hydrogen chloride and losing its toxicity to insects.
What type of toxin is toxaphene?
Toxaphene is an organochlorine insecticide that is similar to other compounds such as endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and chlordecone. Manufacturing of toxaphene was started in the 1940s and was highly effective on cotton and certain food crops.
What is the half life of toxaphene?
The half-life of Toxaphene in soil ranges from 100 days up to 12 years, depending on the soil type and climate. This persistence, combined with a high partition coefficient (log KOW = 3.23-5.50) suggests that Toxaphene is likely to bioconcentrate.
What is the half-life of toxaphene?
What companies manufacture toxaphene?
Production by a total of three U.S. companies (Hercules Incorporated, Tenneco, and Vicksburg Chemical Co., a division of Vertac) during 1976 totaled 19 million kg, which was a 29% decline from the production level of 27 million kg in 1975 (IARC 1979).
How does toxaphene get into the environment?
Toxaphene can enter waterbodies from soil runoff and can also volatilize and be transported to waterbodies via the atmosphere. Toxaphene absorbed by organisms accumulates in fatty tissues and has been shown to affect the central nervous system and the liver.
What type of herbicide is atrazine?
Atrazine is a widely used herbicide that can be applied before and after planting to control broadleaf and grassy weeds. Atrazine is a member of the triazine chemical class, which includes simazine and propazine. It is used in primarily in agriculture, with the greatest use on corn, sorghum, and sugarcane.
What is toxaphene made of?
The resulting product (toxaphene) is a mixture of hundreds of different chlorinated camphenes and related chemicals. Toxaphene is a yellow, waxy solid with a pleasant piney odor. Used as an insecticide, primarily for cotton and early growth stages of vegetables.
What are the side effects of toxaphene?
Exposure to high levels of toxaphene can cause damage to the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and in extreme cases, may even cause death. It is thought to be a potential carcinogen in humans, though this has not yet been proven.
What is the formula weight of toxaphene?
The formula weights of these compounds range from 308 to 551 grams/mole; the theoretical mean formula has a value of 414 grams/mole. Toxaphene is usually seen as a yellow to amber waxy solid with a piney odor.
What foods are high in toxaphene?
Shellfish, algae, fish and marine mammals have all been shown to exhibit high levels of toxaphene. People in the Canadian Arctic, where a traditional diet consists of fish and marine animals, have been shown to consume ten times the accepted daily intake of toxaphene.