Is ciguatoxin water soluble?

Is ciguatoxin water soluble?

Ciguatoxins are lipid-soluble cyclic polyethers structurally similar to brevetoxins. Several variants occur; however, the most common and potent is ciguatoxin-1 (Figure 38.11). Although water-soluble toxins, such as maitotoxin, coexist with ciguatoxins in G.

Is ciguatoxin a neurotoxin?

The presence of ciguatoxin has been reported in semen from affected males which can cause the symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning in females after sexual intercourse. Since this toxin has also been identified in breast milk, it is also possible for affected mothers to pass this disease to their nursing children.

What is the source of ciguatoxin?

Ciguatoxin is produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a type of dinoflagellate. The phenomenon occurs in the Caribbean Sea, Hawaii, and coastal Central America. The toxin usually accumulates in the skin, head, viscera, and roe of big reef fish like grouper, wrasse, triggerfish, lionfish, and amberjack.

Where can ciguatoxin bioaccumulate?

coral reefs
Ciguatoxin bioaccumulation is confined to herbivorous fish on coral reefs and their carnivorous predators and is typically reported in surgeonfish, triggerfish, red bass, snappers, coral trout, grouper, cods, emperors, moray eels, mackerel, tuna, and barracuda, though several other fish have been reported to contain …

Which type of algae produces ciguatoxin?

Ciguatera fish poisoning (or ciguatera) is an illness caused by eating fish that contain toxins produced by a marine microalgae called Gambierdiscus toxicus.

How can ciguatoxin be prevented?


  1. Avoid consuming large (eg, more than 6 lb) predatory reef fish (especially barracuda or moray eel)
  2. Avoid eating the head, viscera, or roe of any reef fish.
  3. Avoid eating fish caught in areas known to be ciguatoxic.

What is ciguatoxin used for?

Ciguatoxins are a group of poison that can accumulate in certain fish. Ciguatoxins are not used as a medicine. Ciguatoxins cause a type of food poisoning called ciguatera. People can get ciguatera by eating normally safe, bottom-feeding, coral reef fish that have collected the poison from the food chain.

What fish have ciguatera in Hawaii?

Since 2016, ciguatera has been found in uku (green jobfish), kole (surgeonfish), Hawaiian sea bass, Hawaiian black triggerfish, ulua (giant trevally), eel, barracuda and amberjack, the department said.

Can you cook out ciguatera?

Ciguatera is a type of food poisoning. Ciguatera toxin is harmless to fish but poisonous to humans. The toxin is odorless and tasteless, and it is heat-resistant, so cooking does not destroy the toxin.

Does mahi mahi have ciguatera?

You cannot get ciguatera poisoning from open ocean fish such as tuna, mahi mahi, marlin or deepwater snapper. Where are ciguatoxic fish found? Ciguatoxic fish are found in a variety of places, including barrier and fringing reefs, lagoons and mangroves.

What fish can you not eat in Hawaii?

What fish cause histamine poisoning in Hawaii? Many of the important Hawaii fish species are potential histamine-formers including mahimahi, tuna (bigeye, yellowfin, albacore and skipjack) and other related open ocean fish species.

Does barracuda carry ciguatera?

The ciguatera toxin may be found in large reef fish, most commonly barracuda, grouper, red snapper, eel, amberjack, sea bass, and Spanish mackerel.

What are ciguatoxins (CTX)?

The ciguatoxins (CTX) are marine algal neurotoxins that act on voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V channels).

Can mouse bioassays detect ciguatoxin in fish?

Otherwise, only expensive ponderous bioassays in such animals as the mongoose, rat and cats were available for screening Ciguatoxin-contaminated fish until ten years ago. The mouse bioassay, while it remains the standard diagnostic tool, does not distinguish between ciguatoxin and scaritoxin.

What is ciguatera fish poisoning?

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness affecting humans worldwide. Humans acquire this illness by eating reef fish containing the naturally occurring toxins, ciguatoxins.

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with ciguatoxin poisoning?

Diagnosis of ciguatoxin poisoning is based on evidence of the recent consumption of appropriate fish species as laboratory tests to confirm the condition are limited. Mortality is low, ranging around 0.5%, but approximately 5% of patients are left with neurological symptoms that persist for months.